Taurine, like carnitine, is synthesised from methionine and cysteine. It, too, is found only in animal products. A deficiency in intake of these three amino acids, or a metabolic defect in metabolising these sulphur amino acids may lead to a deficiency of taurine creating numerous symptoms, including poor digestion of fat. A supplement of molybdenum enhances sulphite oxidase activity and helps convert potentially harmful sulphites into taurine. For 36%, this reduced urinary sulphite loss and improved symptoms. This improved enzyme activity enhances detoxification of the very toxic cyanide ions improving oxidative phosphorylation and cellular oxidation increasing ATP (energy molecule). Supplementing molybdenum or the amino acid L-taurine (500 mg daily, shortly reducing to 100 mg) will then improve the function of the liver, producing better quality bile (darkening of the stool), protecting against gall stones, and improving the digestion of fats. Taurine is vital in preventing cataracts. It spares potassium and calcium in the heart, preventing arrhythmias, aids in detoxifying the body, and serves with GABA and glycine as inhibitory neurotransmitters in the brain.
Glycine is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain stem and spinal cord, where it participates in a variety of motor and sensory functions. Glycine is also present in the forebrain, where it has recently been shown to function as a co-agonist at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptors (it stimulates their function). In the latter context, glycine promotes the actions of glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter. Thus, glycine subserves both inhibitory and excitatory functions within the CNS. The NMDA receptor is activated mainly to amplify the effect of glutamate during periods of especially intense excitation. People of any age with depleted levels of reduced glutathione are especially vulnerable to the free-radical damage associated with glutamate excitotoxicity. Glutamate excitotoxicity damages or destroys some neurons, leading to deficiencies in memory and learning; on the other hand, excess of GABA can lead to lethargy. At the same time, excess ammonia, not detoxified through sufficient glutamine synthesis by the glia, leads to further neural damage. ‘There is evidence that depletion of reduced glutathione makes neurons more susceptible to excitotoxicity, and that intact mitochondrial function is essential for neuronal resistance to excitotoxic attack. It is believed, for example, that reduced levels of the energy currency of the cell (ATP) that accompanies loss of mitochondrial function causes depolarization of neuronal membrane, which exposes NMDA receptors to excessive levels of glutamate. The resulting neurohormonal cascade leads, in many cases, to the death of neurons in the brain, and in the central and peripheral nervous systems.’ – LEF Magazine, March 1996. Since the blockade of NMDA receptors in the cerebral cortex enhances the release of dopamine from lower brain regions, reduced glutamate transmission could be the ultimate cause of excessive dopamine activity in the brains of schizophrenic patients.
High levels of another NMDA receptor blocking agent, kynurenic acid, are found in the spinal fluid of patients with AIDS dementia. The amino acid glycine indirectly activates NMDA receptors, and may reduce apathy, withdrawal, and cognitive impairment in schizophrenic patients. Strychnine poisoning results in muscular contractions and tetany as a result of glycinergic disinhibition and overexcitation. Other a- and b-amino acids, including b-alanine and taurine, also activate glycine receptors, but with lower potency. A deficiency of taurine or GABA in relation to serotonin and dopamine may lead to convulsions; so, in the nervous system, adequate presence of taurine stabilises cell membranes, which raises the seizure threshold and helps treat epileptic seizures. Its anti-convulsant effect is long-lasting, and can be confirmed both clinically and by repeat EEGs (electroencephalograms). It strengthens neutrophils (white blood cells/part of immune system) in their ability to kill bacteria. Taurine deficiency is seen in Parkinson’s Disease, anxiety, Candida, AIDS, cardiac insufficiency, hypertension, depression, and kidney failure. Taurine is a major part of the GTF Factor, being a metabolite of cysteine. A deficiency of cysteine, or a failure to metabolise it to taurine, would create a deficiency of taurine, and adversely affect blood sugar. Taurine is not found in vegetable products, and vitamin B6 is essential to its synthesis. The female hormone estradiol inhibits its synthesis. It is concentrated in high levels in the pituitary and pineal glands when an individual is exposed to full-spectrum light. High stress levels, and a deficiency of vitamins A and E, will cause taurine to spill into the urine.
If the stool is light tan or grey in colour, taurine and/or glycine supplementation will restore normal bile and improve fat digestion. Taurine excess may be seen when Vitamin B6 or zinc is deficient in rheumatoid arthritis, and liver disease. Taurine levels, whether high or low, indicate further lab work is needed. For example, if taurine levels are low, and the clinical picture is suggestive of candidiasis, one should test for candida through comprehensive stool analysis and/or anti-candida antibodies. If candida is found, supplement taurine. If taurine levels are high, zinc and vitamin B6 levels are probably low, and should be tested. P5P, an important form of vitamin B6, is necessary for many amino acid reactions to take place.
Taurine’s function and effectiveness are controlled by vitamin B6 and zinc. Zinc and vitamin B6 are almost universally deficient, and they are lost due to diarrhea. Considering the atrocious diet, and an inflamed gut, why wouldn’t an autistic need to supplement vitamin B6 and zinc, and possibly taurine? Always balance with copper in a 1-to-10, copper/zinc ratio, unless you know a high copper condition exists, or your child is hyper to copper, and monitor that ratio lest you create a copper aneamia that will be made worse if you treat it with iron.
Be careful with taurine as it tends to shut down the E1 prostaglandins. Omega-6s (particularly GLA), when properly balanced with Omega-3s (particularly EPA), give rise to the E11 series of anti-inflammatory prostaglandins. When this balance is not present, arachidonic acid is produced excessively creating the inflammatory E2s. The B-vitamins help convert essential fatty acids (EFA) into the prostaglandin (PG) tissue regulators. It turns out that, through hydrogenation, milling, and selection of w3-poor, Southern foods, we have also been systematically depleting, by as much as 90%, a newly discovered trace, Nordic EFA (w3) that is sole precursor of the PG3 prostaglandins, of special importance to primates. This shortage of fatty acids has occurred even as a concurrent fibre deficiency increases body demand for EFAs. Since substrate EFA is processed by many B vitamin catalysts, an EFA deficiency will mimic a panhypovitaminosis
B, that is, a mixture of substrate beriberi and substrate pellagra resembling vitamin beriberi and pellagra but exhibiting as an even more diverse endemic disease. Supplementation with cod-liver oil for up to 12 weeks may be necessary to see this shift from PgE2 to PgE1. These eicosanoids serve as a communication ‘wiring’ for the body, communicating information from cellular DNA. Most of these children eat such a poor diet they suffer either diarrhea or constipation (sometimes producing the odd symptom of toe walking), perhaps alternating. One mother reports that what she thought to be a two-year-long bout of diarrhea was in fact constipation! Her son who frequently screamed, rubbed or punched his stomach, and walked on his toes, had an impacted bowel with a blockage as large as a small cantaloupe! This should have been accompanied by telltale gut noises as the contents forced their way around the blockage. Doctors said this was merely self-stimulatory action (don’t you believe it).
This is an increasing problem especially in those with poor digestion from a lack of HCl and enzymes such as among the autistic, the aged, and the ones taking antacids and H2 blockers (PepcidT, ZantacT). Foods are not being broken down, and the fibres, in particular, build up in a ball (Bezoar) in the stomach and migrate to the intestine. These can grow to such size that surgical removal is necessary! An dditional supplement (digestive enzymes with cellulase) can help prevent that, and alleviate the usual constipation. The use of soluble fibre: fructooligosaccharide, psyllium, oat, guar gum, pectin, or a combination of fibres; along with a probiotic (preferably goat yogurt, if not on casein-free diet, or capsules of these beneficial bacteria), and the supplemental digestive enzymes that contain cellulase will work wonders to improve the bowel and the digestion. Where there is elevated HCl, the Lactobacillus Acidophilus may not survive, so to ensure they do, take the capsules on an empty stomach (three hours after eating) with half a teaspoon of bicarbonate of soda in a glass of water.
Felsenfeld, et al, found pancreatic enzymes useful in restoring proper intestinal flora, and in the nutritional management of gastrointestinal bacterial overgrowth problems which come from increases in bacteria such as Clostridia, Lactobacillae, Bifidobacteria, Bacteroides, Pseudomonceae, and the Enterobacteriaceae, such as E. Coli and Klebsiella. Many of these organisrns can be recognised as those bacteria involved in protein putrefaction, and the so-called toxic bowel syndrome. Use of azeotropically processed pancreatin hastened the return of the altered intestinal flora to their pre-infection levels, and restored gastrointestinal ecology. Vitamin B12, folic acid, and zinc absorption was enhanced.
Conditions such as chronic and terminal illness, chemotherapy, physical and emotional trauma (surgery, car accident, etc.), prolonged and chronic pain, severe mental depression and emotional stress may alter HCl secretions. This in turn, disrupts the flow and activation of pancreatic enzymes; hence, the malabsorption of food. In such situations, hydrochloric acid supplementation may be warranted in addition to pancreatic enzymes.
In a little heard of experiment at Rockefeller Foundation researchers found ‘a host of diseases generally never associated with faulty diet were definitely connected with the type of food eaten by the individual man or animal’. The parts of the body affected were the chest, ear, nose, upper respiratory passages, the eye, gastrointestinal and urinary tracts, the skin, blood, lymph glands, nerves, heart, and teeth. Sinusitis, adenoids, infections of the middle ear, pneumonia, and bronchiectasis were some of the afflictions that the experimenters were able to reproduce in the animals at will by feeding them the diet that produced these diseases in man.
Since these afflictions are usually regarded as infectious in nature, this is another proof that lowered resistance and impairments resulting from nutritional deficiencies rather than an invasion of microorganisms are the primary causative factors. Only in a body that is depleted or weakened can a germ or virus gain a foothold. Rebuild your immune function by correcting your dietary, and by supplementing with Ambrotose® and Phyt.Aloe® by MannatechT.
What one eats or absorbs from what one eats also determines how the bowel functions, which in turn determines what one absorbs – whether nutrient or toxin.
Diarrhea and constipation are both severe problems for most autistics. Diarrhea is the most debilitating due to loss of nutrients and necessary water, and must not be allowed to continue. Dehydration alone is a serious condition producing a multitude of symptoms.
In this paper, I have mentioned a number of conditions contributing to diarrhea, but I summarise them here as a ready reminder and as a checklist to pursue in elimination of this most serious condition:
- A lack of symbiotic bacteria in the gut, creating a lack of butyric acid and nutrients.
- Milk, either due to casein sensitivity, or to a lack of lactase to digest lactose.
- Morning diarrhea due to lack of HCl.
- Overgrowth of harmful bacteria, especially E Coli, clostridium, and or giardia lamblia usually accompanied by a deficiency of B-cells. A T-cell problem may be present. An immune imbalance is indicated.
- A deficiency of one or more nutrients: Vitamins A, B1, D, K, pantothenic acid, niacin, folic acid, zinc, magnesium, potassium, MSM, and of protein. Supplementing these nutrients, especially vitamin A and zinc usually stops diarrhea, measles, malaria, and ear infections.
- An excess of vitamin C, and of the B-complex. These should not be taken in high potency, single doses, but in three or four servings of lesser amounts.
- Rarely, a toxic build up of vitamins A, D, niacin, potassium, copper, phosphorus, zinc, or iron.
- Use of the oxide and citrate forms of minerals, especially of magnesium. These are laxatives.
- Too much fatty acid, or an imbalance between EPO and CLO. Too large a serving at the beginning in particular will affect the bowel, especially when vitamin B-complex is lacking and bile is not being formed adequately (stool is light coloured, grey or yellow). In this case, a supplement of taurine, glycine, and niacinamide may darken the stool and improve digestion of fats.
- Encephalitis will cause alternating diarrhea and constipation. This is a likely condition, especially early on in an adverse reaction to a vaccine.
- Phenol toxicity. This is prevalent in the PST condition. One must ‘unload the donkey’.
- An imbalance of acetylcholine/dopamine/norepinephrine. Too much acetylcholine or too little dopamine or norepinephrine.
- Antibiotic use causing destruction of symbiotic bacteria and a ‘Leaky Gut’.
- Use of fluoride. This is present in city water, juices, prepared cereals, soft drinks, and toothpaste. It’s easy to get an overdose. Eliminate these and other sources.
- Apple juice and other fruit juices, honey, and fructose sweetener, including high fructose corn syrup being added to everything these days. Fructose is a laxative to many.
- Stress, emotional and otherwise, and these kids are under extreme stress.
- Celiac disease, and lesser gluten/gliadin intolerance.
- Dish soap not being rinsed from dishes adequately.
- Mercury poisoning.
- Systemic acidity as in diabetes, epilepsy, or hyperventilating. Calcium carbonate may help.
- Excess insulin, as in a largely carbohydrate diet, or in soya formula/milk or a high intake of flax or other foods high in phytoestrogens.
- Bezoar, or a flaccid gut causing impaction. This is actually constipation, but presents as diarrhea as the gut pours out water to flush the excess stool out.